by Dr. John D. Morris
|Granite||Igneous||Quartz and feldspar with mica and hornblende||Formed when molten rock is cooled||Mountains, upper mantle|
|Rhyolite||Igneous||Quartz and feldspar with mica and hornblende||Formed when molten rock erupts on land and solidifies||Land|
|Obsidian||Igneous||Quartz and feldspar with mica and hornblende||Formed by the rapid cooling of lava as it flows in the surface of the ground||Land|
|Pumice||Igneous||Quartz and feldspar with mica and hornblende||Formed by eruptions on land—the cooling process forms air pockets in the rock||Land|
|Basalt||Igneous||Pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar||Solidified molten lava under water and on land||Oceanic crust, land|
|Shale||Clastic Sedimentary||Cemented particles of clay (and minor silt)||Formed from previously existing rocks that were eroded, transported and redeposited elsewhere||Mountains, land|
|Sandstone||Clastic Sedimentary||Quartz sand, particles big enough to be seen||Formed from previously existing rocks that were eroded, transported and redeposited elsewhere||Mountains, land|
|Conglomerate||Clastic Sedimentary||Pebble-size to boulder-size grains mixed with smaller sand or clay particles||Formed from previously existing rocks that were eroded, transported and redeposited elsewhere||Mountains, land|
|Limestone||Organic chemical sedimentary||Calcium carbonate from shells of sea creatures, reef fragments or limey secretions of sea creatures||Formed when water can no longer keep various chemicals dissolved within it||Sea floors, land|
|Diatomaceous earth||Organic chemical sedimentary||Collection of shells from diatoms or radiolarians and certain algae||Formed when water can no longer keep various chemicals dissolved within it||Land|
|Coal||Organic chemical sedimentary||Buried plant material||Formed when water can no longer keep various chemicals dissolved in it||Land|
|Limestone||Inorganic chemical sedimentary||Calcium carbonate derived from inorganic sources||Formed when water can no longer keep various chemicals dissolved in it||Caves, mineral springs, stalactites, stalagmites|
|Dolomite||Inorganic chemical sedimentary||Calcium carbonate with magnesium atoms||Formed when water can no longer keep various chemicals dissolved in it||Land|
|Evaporites||Inorganic chemical sedimentary||The remains of evaporated seawater||Some were formed when a huge volume of mineral-laden water came up through the ocean floor basalts and released its dissolved content when it hit the cold ocean waters||Land|
|Slate||Metamorphic||Shale||Shale subjected to heat and pressure||Land|
|Schist||Metamorphic||Shale||Slate that continues to undergo heat and pressure||Land|
|Gneiss||Metamorphic||Alternating bands of different minerals from other sedimentary or igneous rocks||Formed from other sedimentary or igneous rocks that have been subjected to heat and pressure||Land|
|Quartzite||Metamorphic||Quartz sandstone||Quartz sandstone that has been subjected to change||Land|
|Marble||Metamorphic||Limestone||Heat and pressure applied to limestone||Land|
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