CorrectionsAnswers Research Journal, Volume 6, 2013

Table of Contents

  • p1–16Is There a Dominion Mandate?

    by Darek Isaacs

    This paper discusses the concept of the dominion mandate. It examines the key passages of Scripture in which the dominion mandate has found its origin. It explores the observational evidence of man’s interaction with nature and questions if there is any true dominion that can be observed. It then proceeds to examine the Bible for evidence of the original dominion of Adam being extant and offers a rebuttal to the idea of a dominion mandate with a counter position.

  • p17–34An Initial Estimate Toward Identifying and Numbering Amphibian Kinds within the Orders Caudata and Gymnophiona

    by Tom Hennigan

    Biosystematics is in great flux today because of the plethora of genetic research continually shedding light on organism relationships. Despite the large amount of data being published, the challenge is having enough knowledge about genetics to draw conclusions regarding the biological history of organisms and their taxonomy. Despite these uncertainties, an initial attempt to count and identify biblical kinds in amphibian orders Caudata and Gymnophiona were estimated using current information and several key assumptions and guidelines. They include focusing on monophyly based on morphological and genetic characters, maintaining taxonomic stability, relying on authors who demonstrate expertise in systematics, considering the usefulness and general acceptance of nomenclature, using hybridization data as evidence that organisms are of the same kind, identifying the cognitum, and using statistical baraminology as a tool to assess holistic continuity and discontinuity amongst and between organisms. With the above parameters, and current systematics data from extant amphibians, the initial conclusions suggest that Noah had 53 extant Caudate kinds and one extant Gymnophionan kind on the Ark.

  • p35–62A Further Examination of the Gospel in the Stars

    by Danny Faulkner

    The gospel in the stars is a popular topic with many recent creationists. In an earlier paper, I examined some problems with this thesis. Since that earlier publication, the primary source on the subject has become available, allowing this much more detailed examination. In this current study, I identify many problems with the assumptions, methodologies, and conclusions made with the gospel in the stars thesis. The etymologies of terms and names are questionable at best and most likely are simply wrong. The biblical arguments are poor, and some conclusions are contrary to biblical principles. While well intended, the gospel in the stars is fraught with problems, and Christians are discouraged from using it.

  • p63–69Comprehensive Analysis of Chimpanzee and Human Chromosomes Reveals Average DNA Similarity of 70%

    by Jeffrey P. Tomkins

    Since the original 2005 report for the chimpanzee (chimp) genome assembly (5X rough draft), an additional one-fold redundant coverage has been added. Using the new 6X chimpanzee assembly, a sequential comparison to the human genome was performed on an individual chromosome basis. The chimpanzee chromosomes, were sliced into new individual query files of varying string lengths and then queried against their human chromosome homolog using the BLASTN algorithm. Using this approach, queries could be optimized for each chromosome irrespective of gene/feature linear order. Non-DNA letters (gap filling ‘N’s) were stripped from the query data and excluded from the analyses. The definition of similarity for each chromosome was the amount (percent) of optimally aligned chimp DNA. This definition was considered to be conservative because it did not include the amount of human DNA absent in chimp nor did it include chimp DNA that was not aligned to the human genome assembly (unanchored sequence contigs).

    For the chimp autosomes, the amount of optimally aligned DNA sequence provided similarities between 66 and 76%, depending on the chromosome. In general, the smaller and more gene-dense the chromosomes, the higher the DNA similarity—although there were several notable exceptions defying this trend. Only 69% of the chimpanzee X chromosome was similar to human and only 43% of the Y chromosome. Genome-wide, only 70% of the chimpanzee DNA was similar to human under the most optimal sequence-slice conditions. While, chimpanzees and humans share many localized protein-coding regions of high similarity, the overall extreme discontinuity between the two genomes defies evolutionary timescales and dogmatic presuppositions about a common ancestor.

  • p71–77German and American Eugenics in the Pre-World War 1 Era

    by Danae M. McGregor

    Before the traumatic devastation of the Nazi genocides, eugenics theory was widely accepted by both German and American scientists, especially in the pre-World War 1 era. Modern eugenics originated in the work and theories of Francis Galton in the late nineteenth century. Its later policy implementation was determined by both the amount of private wealth and the degree of governmental centrality in America, Germany, and other nations. As American eugenics experienced a rapid rate of development and implementation, German “hygienists” soon began to promote their own eugenics programs.

    Although intellectual and practical connections existed between the ideas discussed in both United States of America and Germany, differences in cultural circumstances, including political, journalistic, and education-related opportunities, impacted eugenic progress. Ultimately, while there is not sufficient justification to fault one nation alone, the extent to which American eugenics was successfully implemented heavily influenced the German interest and experimentation in their emerging theory of eugenics.

  • p79–98Evangelical Commentaries on the Days of Creation in Genesis One

    by Simon Turpin

    The length of the days of creation in Genesis 1 is a question today that generates much controversy. Both inside and outside the church, people mock the idea of God creating the world in six 24-hour days. Over the last 200 years Christian scholars have gone out of their way to try to find ways to fit the idea of millions of years of evolution into the text of Genesis 1 and today the majority of evangelical commentators on Genesis follow suit in their interpretation of the text. This paper will evaluate and critique six commentaries and the reasons they give for not taking the days of creation literally. While these commentaries are a great help in many ways, their stance on the days of creation is hindering the church’s witness in a world dominated by evolutionary thinking.

  • p99–116Did Death of any Kind Exist Before the Fall?

    by Simon Turpin

    Death is a sad reality that is ever present in our world, leaving behind tremendous pain and suffering. Tragically, many people shake a fist at God when faced with the loss of a loved one and are left without adequate answers from the church as to death’s existence. Unfortunately, an assumption has crept into the church which sees death as a natural part of our existence and as something that we have to put up with as opposed to it being an enemy (1 Corinthians 15:26) that came into God’s very good creation.

    This paper will argue that the biblical understanding of death, whether animal or human, physical or spiritual, views it to be a consequence of man’s disobedience towards his Creator and an intrusion into His “very good” creation.

  • p117–135A Response to Peter Enns’s Attack on Biblical Creationism

    by Lee Anderson, Jr., AiG–U.S.

    This paper overviews the recent work of Peter Enns, The Evolution of Adam, examining the implications of Enns’s conclusions for the topics of biblical inspiration and inerrancy, human origins, and the exegesis of the biblical text. Included in this overview is a discussion of Enns’s theological and philosophical assumptions that impinge upon his conclusions, as well as the published concerns that prominent biblical scholars have expressed relating to those conclusions. This paper contends that the views expounded in The Evolution of Adam are flawed at a foundational level, and aims to show that Enns’s incarnational model of Scripture is theologically unsound, that his presupposed view of the origin of humanity is scientifically unwarranted, and that his understanding of the purpose and meaning of the Creation account in both Genesis and Paul’s interpretation of Genesis is biblically unsubstantiated.

  • p137–138Is There a Dominion Mandate? Discussion: A Response to Darek Isaacs

    by Thomas D. Hennigan

    Thomas D. Hennigan responds to Darek Isaacs’ paper, Is There a Dominion Mandate?
  • p139–143Is There a Dominion Mandate? Discussion: In Defense of Human Dominion

    by Andrew S. Kulikovsky

    This paper offers a detailed rebuttal of Darek Isaacs’s criticisms of my recently published paper “Human Dominion and Reproduction” (Kulikovsky 2012). The paper demonstrates that Isaacs has confused concepts and mischaracterized my position to the point that his critique amounts to a straw man argument.

  • p145–155Is There a Dominion Mandate? Discussion: The Dominion Mandate: Yesterday, Today, and Forever

    by Joel McDurmon

    The dominion mandate was established by God both as the appointment of mankind to a position of authority in the earth and as a direct imperative actively to exercise that dominion. This status and project were both marred and rendered difficult by the dominion of sin and death after Adam’s fall, but they were not eradicated. The mandate is restored and renewed in the dominion of Christ, believers in Christ share in that dominion, and that dominion shall be accomplished while Christ reigns from His throne in heaven.

  • p157–177Is There a Dominion Mandate? Reply: A Response to Hennigan, Kulikovsky, and McDurmon

    by Darek Isaacs

    Darek Isaacs responds to the challenges to his paper, “Is there a dominion mandate?” This discussion explores the differences between blessings and commandments in light of how their distinctions would impact the understanding of the so-called dominion mandate. This discussion explores the nature of reproduction and how the outcome of reproduction is a result of the blessing of the womb, and not a result of obeying a command to multiply. Isaacs presents views that reject the idea that modern medicines, buildings, and technologies are a demonstration of the Adamic dominion, but rather such responses to an adverse environment are signs that man’s rule and authority is not being recognized and defense mechanisms need to be built as a result. Ultimately, Isaacs argues that the Adamic dominion is defunct, and dominion has been given to the Messiah.

  • p179–191An Analysis of the Dodwell Hypothesis

    by Danny R. Faulkner, AiG–U.S.

    I examine the Dodwell hypothesis, that the earth underwent a catastrophic impact in 2345 BC that altered its axial tilt and then gradually recovered by about 1850. I identify problems with the selection and handling of certain ancient and medieval data. With the elimination of questionable data, a discrepancy may remain between ancient measurements of the earth’s tilt and our modern understanding of how the tilt has varied over time. This discrepancy, if real, does not demand the sort of catastrophe suggested by Dodwell, so there is doubt that this event occurred. If there were some abrupt change in the earth’s tilt in the past, the available data are not sufficient to fix the date of that event with any precision.

  • p193Bibliography of Creationist Astronomy

    by Danny R. Faulkner, AiG–U.S.

    This is an introduction to, and announcement of, a new compilation of articles, papers and letters to the editor on creationist astronomy which has been placed on this journal’s website. An explanation of the selection criteria is given.

  • p195–209The Importance of an Historical Adam

    by Simon Turpin

    The question of whether man was specially created directly from the hand of God or whether he evolved from an ape-like creature has long been a controversial issue. In today’s secular culture it is common to view the biblical history of Adam as a story, myth, or a parable but this is now also becoming the standard interpretation for many within the evangelical community.

    In order to understand Genesis this way we have to sacrifice the clear teaching of the Bible to fit with a particular evolutionary view of earth’s history.

  • p211–229Astronomical Distance Determination Methods and the Light Travel Time Problem

    by Danny R. Faulkner, AiG–U.S.

    Some recent creationists have attempted to address the light travel time problem indirectly with an implied appeal to a small universe. If the universe is no more than a few thousand light years in size, then the light travel time is eliminated almost by definition. Here I survey the methods used for establishing astronomical distances. The only direct method of measuring stellar distances generally results in reliably measured distances of less than a thousand light years. However, that limit likely soon will exceed 6000 light years. Indirect methods already produce distances that are thousands, millions, and even billions of light years. The indirect distance determination methods ultimately are tied to direct determinations of distance, and they are reasonably consistent with one another. Furthermore the indirect methods are supported by well-understood physics. It is extremely unlikely that these methods are so wrong that the light travel time problem can be answered with a small universe.

  • p231–264Stone Tools From the Early Tertiary in Europe—A Contradiction to any Evolutionary Theory About the Origin of Man and to Long Geological Periods of Time

    by Michael Brandt

    Approximately between 1860 and 1930, in some cases even later, there was a discussion about flint findings from Paleocene to Pliocene strata which were similar to tools. The findings show typical marks of human processing. Nevertheless they were rejected as human relicts on the grounds that they had been formed by geological processes. But after decades of research there is still not the least indication of any reasonable scientific support for this statement. The actual reason for the rejection of these findings is their occurrence, which within the scope of the evolutionary paradigm is too early in geological history. They are a contradiction to any evolutionary theory about the origin of man, and they contradict the conventional long time periods.

  • p265–278The Dwarfs are for the Dwarfs: Stanley Fish, The Pragmatic Presuppositionalist

    by Mark L. Ward, Jr.

    Literary theorist and prominent public intellectual Stanley Fish is a self-described “antifoundationalist”—someone who believes that truth is relative to one’s “interpretive community.” As such, he provides an as-your-own-poets-hath-said opportunity for Christian apologists. He is particularly helpful in puncturing the inflated claims of Enlightenment secularist liberalism, and along with it the scientism that underlies much public discourse in the West. Fish can be useful to theological conservatives, and creationists in particular. John Frame’s approach to presuppositional apologetics, and in particular his “triperspectivalism,” are helpful tools making possible a careful Christian appropriation of Fish’s work.

  • p279–284A Proposal for a New Solution to the Light Travel Time Problem

    by Danny R. Faulkner, AiG–U.S.

    I identify a little-noticed issue in the normal formulation of the light travel time problem. In addition, I lay groundwork for the beginning of a new solution to the problem. This solution invokes similarity between creative acts of Day Four and other days of the Creation Week, but especially Day Three. The Day Three account suggests unusually fast growth for plants. In similar fashion, this possible new solution suggests unusually fast propagation of light on Day Four, probably by rapid expansion of space. This is an appeal to a miraculous event rather than a physical process to get distant starlight to the earth. It is not yet clear whether this suggestion could have testable predictions. If this is the correct way to look at the problem, it may be that we are seeing much of the universe in something close to real time. I briefly compare this possible solution to the light travel time to other previously published proposals.

  • p285–292Does Natural Selection Exist?

    by Nathaniel T. Jeanson, ICR

    How the biblical kinds diversified into the species we see today is a pressing research puzzle in the young-earth model of origins. My analysis specifically evaluates Randy Guliuzza’s two central claims with respect to this question: (1) that natural selection does not exist; (2) that “programmed filling” is superior to natural selection on biblical and scientific grounds. I show that Guliuzza fails to provide scientific or biblical justification for these assertions. Therefore, Guliuzza’s claims represent speculation misstated as scientific fact, and the role of natural selection post-Creation and post-Flood remains an open question.

  • p293–301The Human Beta-Globin Pseudogene Is Non-Variable and Functional

    by Jeffrey P. Tomkins

    One of the iconic (yet enigmatic) arguments for human-ape common ancestry has been the β-globin pseudogene (HBBP1). Evolutionists originally speculated that apparent mutations in HBBP1 were shared mutational mistakes derived from a human-chimpanzee common ancestor. However, others noted that if the gene was indeed non-functional, then it should have mutated markedly in the past 3 to 6 million years of human evolution due to a lack of selective constraint on the region. Recent research confirms that the HBBP1 region of the 6-gene β-globulin cluster is highly non-variable compared to the other β-globin genes based on large-scale DNA diversity assessment within both humans and chimpanzees. Highlighting the lack of HBBP1 sequence variability is genetic data from three different reports that link point mutations in the HBBP1 gene with β-thalassemia disease pathologies. Biochemical evidence for functionality is indicated by multiple categories of functional genomics data showing that the HBBP1 gene is transcriptionally active and a key interactive component of the β-globin gene network. In brief, the HBBP1 gene encodes two consensus regulatory RNAs that are alternatively transcribed and/or post-transcriptionally spliced. This functional complexity produces at least 16 different exon variant transcripts and 42 different intron variant transcripts. Two major regulatory regions in the HBBP1 locus contain active transcription factor binding sites that overlap multiple categorical regions of epigenetic data for functionally active chromatin. The HBBP1 gene also has the most regulatory associations with active and open chromatin within the entire β-globin cluster and its transcripts are expressed in at least 251 different human cell and/or tissue types. Instead of being a useless genomic fossil according to evolutionary predictions, the HBBP1 gene appears to be a highly functional and cleverly integrated feature of the human genome that is intolerant of mutation.

  • p303–320An Evaluation of Plasma Astronomy

    by Danny R. Faulkner

    Many recent creationists are attracted to plasma astronomy, the idea that electromagnetic effects rather than gravity are responsible for much of the structure of the universe. I examine the claims of at least one proponent of plasma astronomy, Donald E. Scott. Scott has written a book that discusses many aspects of plasma astronomy. This book appears to be the most concise treatment of plasma astronomy in print, so it ought to be a good source. However, his case is very weak, for he relies upon many misunderstandings of astronomy, and he presented much incorrect and misleading information. He also rejects general relativity, a well-tested physics theory. I urge extreme caution of these ideas in the creation community, and I encourage fair consideration of the operational science aspects of astronomy.

  • p321–333Chimeras, Cybrids, and Hybrids: A Christian’s Observations and Critique of Some Aspects of the Controversy Involving the Mixing of Human and Animal Materials for Scientific Research

    by Callie Joubert

    The paper discusses and critiques some aspects of the controversy in bioethics concerning the mixing of human and animal materials for scientific research, including the science and technology of chimeras, cybrids, and human-animal hybrids, and the conceptual logic of evolutionists. It is argued that the logic of evolutionists explains why objections to the research are unconvincing, and concludes that the controversy cannot be settled in secular terms.

  • p335–365An Initial Estimate toward Identifying and Numbering the Frog Kinds on the Ark: Order Anura

    by Tom Hennigan

    Biosystematics is in great flux today because of the plethora of genetic research continually shedding light on organism relationships. Despite the large amount of data being published, the challenge is having enough knowledge about genetics to draw conclusions regarding the biological history of organisms and their logical taxonomic placement. Despite these uncertainties, an initial attempt to count and identify Anuran kinds was completed using current information and several key assumptions and guidelines. These include focusing on monophyly, maintaining stability as it pertains to the association of names and their taxa, relying on authors who demonstrate expertise in systematics, hybridization as evidence that species belong to the same kind, the relevance of the cognitum, and assessing characters in order to determine holistic continuity and discontinuity using statistical baraminology. Taking the above into consideration and realizing that Anuran taxonomy is in great flux with new species being identified every year, it is estimated that 140 extant Anuran kinds were brought on the Ark.

  • p367–375Alleged Human Chromosome 2 “Fusion Site” Encodes an Active DNA Binding Domain Inside a Complex and Highly Expressed Gene—Negating Fusion

    by Jeffrey P. Tomkins

    A major argument supposedly supporting human evolution from a common ancestor with chimpanzees is the “chromosome 2 fusion model” in which ape chromosomes 2A and 2B purportedly fused end-to-end, forming human chromosome 2. This idea is postulated despite the fact that all known fusions in extant mammals involve satellite DNA and breaks at or near centromeres. In addition, researchers have noted that the hypothetical telomeric end-to-end signature of the fusion is very small (~800 bases) and highly degenerate (ambiguous) given the supposed 3 to 6 million years of divergence from a common ancestor. In this report, it is also shown that the purported fusion site (read in the minus strand orientation) is a functional DNA binding domain inside the first intron of the DDX11L2 regulatory RNA helicase gene, which encodes several transcript variants expressed in at least 255 different cell and/or tissue types. Specifically, the purported fusion site encodes the second active transcription factor binding domain in the DDX11L2 gene that coincides with transcriptionally active histone marks and open active chromatin. Annotated DDX11L2 gene transcripts suggest complex post-transcriptional regulation through a variety of microRNA binding sites. Chromosome fusions would not be expected to form complex multi-exon, alternatively spliced functional genes. This clear genetic evidence, combined with the fact that a previously documented 614 Kb genomic region surrounding the purported fusion site lacks synteny (gene correspondence) with chimpanzee on chromosomes 2A and 2B (supposed fusion sites of origin), thoroughly refutes the claim that human chromosome 2 is the result of an ancestral telomeric end-to-end fusion.

  • p377–389Jesus, Scripture and Error: An Implication of Theistic Evolution

    by Simon Turpin

    Within the church, the creation vs. evolution debate is often looked upon as a side issue or as unimportant. However, nothing could be further from the truth. Because of the acceptance of evolutionary theory, many have chosen to re-interpret the Bible with regards to its teaching on creation, the history of Adam and the global catastrophic flood in Noah’s day. Consequently, the very teachings of Jesus are being attacked by those who state that, because of His human nature, there is error in some of His teaching regarding earthly things such as creation. While scholars admit that Jesus affirmed such things as Adam, Eve, Noah and the Flood, they believe that Jesus was wrong on these matters.

    The problem with this theory is that it raises the question of Jesus’s reliability, not only as a prophet, but more importantly as our sinless Savior. These critics go too far when they say that because of Jesus’s human nature and cultural context, He taught and believed erroneous ideas.

  • p391–397Thoughts on the Goodness of Creation: In What Sense was Creation “Perfect”?

    by Lee Anderson

    In the early days of the young-earth creationist movement, a number of publications promoted the notion that the second law of thermodynamics was introduced as a result of the curse. This view has been accepted, sometimes blindly so, by certain contemporary creationists as well. This paper surveys a collection of the early creationist publications, and then addresses the question of whether it is warranted to view God’s pronouncement in Genesis 1:31 that His creation was “very good” as necessitating the absence of a tendency toward increased entropy. It also considers whether there is exegetical warrant for linking the curse pronounced in Genesis 3 with the introduction of the second law of thermodynamics. The paper contends that there is no real biblical evidence to suggest that the second law was inoperable prior to the curse. It argues rather that the second law was in effect from the beginning of creation. However, the tendency toward entropy implicit in the second law was never of a kind that conflicted with God’s declaration that the creation was “very good,” or that eventuated in the death of any sentient creature.

  • p399–407The Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Curse

    by Danny Faulkner

    Many recent creationists believe that the second law of thermodynamics came into being as a result of the Fall or the curse. I argue that this is not supported by Scripture, nor is it a defensible position from a scientific viewpoint. Instituting the second law of thermodynamics at the Fall needlessly causes problems for theology and science. Rather, I propose that the second law of thermodynamics came into the picture during the Creation Week as part of the created order (Nehemiah 9:6; Colossians 1:16).

  • p409–466An Initial Estimate of Avian Ark Kinds

    by Jean K. Lightner

    Creationists recognize that animals were created according to their kinds, but there has been no comprehensive list of what those kinds are. As part of the Answers in Genesis Ark Encounter project, research was initiated in an attempt to more clearly identify and enumerate vertebrate kinds that were present on the Ark. In this paper, using methods previously described, 196 putative bird kinds are identified. Due to the limited information available and the fact that avian taxonomic classifications shift, this should be considered only a rough estimate.

  • p467–501Recent, Functionally Diverse Origin for Mitochondrial Genes from ~2700 Metazoan Species

    by Nathaniel T. Jeanson

    The young-earth creation model currently lacks a robust explanation for molecular diversity. No comprehensive method exists by which absolute or relative sequence differences among species can be predicted, and no method has been formulated to rigorously predict the function of molecular residues, especially those in so-called “house-keeping” proteins. In this study, I derived a method to predict the function of molecular differences between biblical “kinds.” Applying this method to the mitochondrial “house-keeping” protein sequences of ~2700 species, I found that differences among “kinds” were not due to neutral changes since creation, but were explicable in functional terms. This finding has implications for the mechanisms and feasibility of species’ change. Conversely, I also found that absolute genetic differences within a “kind” were predictable to a first approximation by modern mutation rates and the young-earth timescale. These data provide a compelling alternative to old-earth and evolutionary explanations for molecular diversity, and they challenge the millions-of-years timescale common to these models.

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Bibliography of Creationist Astronomy

This is a compilation of articles, papers and letters to the editor on creationist astronomy.

Bibliography of Creationist Astronomy 2013

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