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CorrectionsAnswers Research Journal, Volume 7, 2014

Table of Contents

  • p1–10An Initial Estimate toward Identifying and Numbering the Ark Turtle and Crocodile Kinds

    by Tom Hennigan

    Biosystematics is in great flux today because of the plethora of genetic research continually shedding light on organism relationships. Despite the large amount of data being published, the challenge is having enough knowledge about genetics to draw conclusions regarding the biological history of organisms and their taxonomy. Based on the analyses of molecular data, hybridization capability, and statistical baraminology it is estimated that 11 extant turtle kinds and three extant crocodile kinds were brought on the Ark.

  • p11–25Interpreting Craters in Terms of the Day Four Cratering Hypothesis

    by Danny Faulkner

    I summarize previous discussion of understanding craters within the recent creation paradigm. I further develop an earlier suggestion of mine, that most solar system craters date from the formation of astronomical bodies on the fourth day of the Creation Week. This proposal is consistent with the “very good” of Genesis 1:31 and the rest of the Creation account. Calling this proposal the Day Four cratering hypothesis, I interpret the overall appearance of the surface of solar system bodies.

  • p27–30Did the Moon Appear as Blood on the Night of the Crucifixion?

    by Danny Faulkner

    It has become popular in Christian circles to postulate that the Crucifixion occurred on April 3, AD 33. Often important in this conclusion is that there was a lunar eclipse that evening, with the assumption that the Apostle Peter’s quoting of Joel 2 at Pentecost about the moon being turned to blood is a reference to that eclipse. However, there is considerable doubt that this interpretation is correct, because this eclipse was far from total, and the moon rose over Jerusalem after maximum eclipse. The eye cannot observe the color of a partially eclipsed moon, so this eclipse could not fit the description of a “blood moon.” Assuming that Peter’s statement about the moon being turned to blood was a reference to some event at the time of the Crucifixion, it is far more plausible that unusual atmospheric conditions at that time were responsible.

  • p31–47An Initial Estimate toward Identifying and Numbering Extant Tuatara, Amphisbaena, and Snake Kinds

    by Tom Hennigan

    Biosystematics is in great flux today because of the plethora of genetic research which continually redefines how we perceive organism relationships. Despite the large amount of data being published, the challenge is having enough knowledge about genetics to draw conclusions regarding the biological history of organisms and their taxonomy. Based on the analyses of extant organism molecular data, taxonomy, and hybridization capability a tentative estimate of one tuatara, two amphisbaena, and 41 snake kinds is proposed as being on the Ark.

  • p49–81Radiohalos in Multiple, Sequentially Intruded Phases of the Bathurst Batholith, NSW, Australia: Evidence for Rapid Granite Formation during the Flood

    by Andrew Snelling

    The Bathurst Batholith west of Sydney, Australia, consists of an enormous pluton (the Bathurst Granite) and numerous smaller related satellite plutons and dikes. The major pluton cuts east-west across the prevailing north-south strike of the fossiliferous sedimentary strata, unequivocal evidence that the intrusion of the batholith structurally disrupted the regional fabric of the host strata sequence. Sedimentary rocks in the contact zone were metamorphosed by the hot magma. The major dike-like Evans Crown granite cuts across the Bathurst Granite and the surrounding host strata. This dike’s central portions are coarse and even grained like the Bathurst Granite, but the margins are chilled, testimony to intrusion of the dike as hot granite magma. Many minor granite dikes cut across the margins of the Bathurst Granite and also across the Evans Crown dike out into the surrounding strata. Alteration zones marginal to the sharp contacts of the dikes with the wallrocks indicate the magma was still hot when injected. Abundant 238U and 210Po radiohalos are present in biotite flakes of all samples of the Bathurst Granite and Evans Crown dike. 214Po and 218Po radiohalos are present only in some samples of the Bathurst Granite. A few 210Po and 238U radiohalos are also present in biotite flakes within some samples of the dikes that cut across the Bathurst Granite or the Evans Crown dike. Field and textural data have established that these granite phases were sequentially intruded while still hot. That these granitic phases were intruded as hot magma is also confirmed by analytical and experimental data. All this had to occur within the Flood year, so these multiple granite phases were not created cold by fiat. Instead, the Po radiohalos indicate they were formed rapidly below 150°C via hydrothermal fluid transport of Rn and Po from the zircon grains embedded in the biotite flakes that are often the radiocenters of the U radiohalos. Furthermore, their presence in all three sequentially intruded granite phases is evidence that all this intrusive activity, and the cooling of all three granite phases to 150°C, must have occurred within a week or two so that these Po radiohalos in them formed subsequently within days to weeks.

  • p83–90Comments on the Cosmic Microwave Background

    by Danny Faulkner

    I examine two explanations for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) that recent creationists have proposed, 1) radiation from dust, and 2) Eddington’s “temperature of space” computation. Both of these suggested sources have problems. Radiation from dust is too clumpy and has too high temperature to be the source of the CMB. Eddington’s model of the “temperature of space” differs from the characteristics of the CMB in at least three ways. I also examine some claims from critics of the big bang that the CMB plots have been manipulated to mimic a blackbody spectrum and find that argument to be baseless. I briefly survey four problems with the CMB being the remnant of the big bang. These considerations present the possibility that no one yet knows the true origin of the CMB.

  • p91–101The Human GULO Pseudogene—Evidence for Evolutionary Discontinuity and Genetic Entropy

    by Jeffrey P. Tomkins

    Modern genomics provides the ability to screen the DNA of a wide variety of organisms to scrutinize broken metabolic pathways. This wealth of data has revealed wide-spread genetic entropy in human and other genomes. Loss of the vitamin C pathway due to deletions in the GULO (L-gulonolactone oxidase) gene has been detected in humans, apes, guinea pigs, bats, mice, rats, pigs, and passerine birds. Contrary to the popularized claims of some evolutionists and neo-creationists, patterns of GULO degradation are taxonomically restricted and fail to support macroevolution. Current research and data reported here show that multiple GULO exon losses in human, chimpanzee, and gorilla occurred independently in each taxon and are associated with regions containing a wide variety of transposable element fragments. Thus, they are another example of sequence deletions occurring via unequal recombination associated with transposable element repeats. The 28,800 base human GULO region is only 84% and 87% identical compared to chimpanzee and gorilla, respectively. The 13,000 bases preceding the human GULO gene, which corresponds to the putative area of loss for at least two major exons, is only 68% and 73% identical to chimpanzee and gorilla, respectively. These DNA similarities are inconsistent with predictions of the common ancestry paradigm. Further, gorilla is considerably more similar to human in this region than chimpanzee—negating the inferred order of phylogeny. Taxonomically restricted gene degradation events are emerging as a common theme associated with genetic entropy and systematic discontinuity, not macroevolution.

  • p103–145Radioisotope Dating of Meteorites: I. The Allende CV3 Carbonaceous Chrondrite

    by Andrew Snelling

    Meteorites have been used to date the earth with a 4.55 ± 0.07 Ga Pb-Pb isochron called the geochron. They appear to consistently yield 4.56–4.57 Ga radioisotope ages, adding to the uniformitarians’ confidence in the radioisotope dating methods. The Allende CV3 carbonaceous chondrite meteorite, which fell to earth in Mexico February 8, 1969, is one of the most-studied meteorites. Many radioisotope dating studies in the last 40 years have used the K-Ar, Ar-Ar, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Th-Pb, Lu-Hf, Mn-Cr, W-Hf, Al-Mg, and I-Xe methods to yield an abundance of isochron and model ages for this meteorite from chondrules, Ca-Al inclusions, whole-rock samples, and matrix, mineral, and other fractions, all of which components are described. The age data were all tabulated and plotted on frequency versus age histogram diagrams, and strongly cluster at 4.56–4.57 Ga, dominated by Pb-Pb isochron and model ages. The earliest (1976) and the latest (2010) determined Pb-Pb isochron ages at 4.553 ± 0.004 Ga and 4.56718 ± 0.0002 Ga respectively are essentially the same, testimony to that technique’s supremacy as the uniformitarians’ ultimate, most reliable dating tool. Apart from scatter of the U-Pb, Th-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Ar-Ar ages, no systematic pattern was found in the Allende isochron and model ages similar to the systematic pattern of isochron ages found in Precambrian rock units during the RATE project. If such evidence in earth rocks is applied to meteorites, then Allende seems to have no apparent evidence in it of past accelerated radioisotope decay. However, if accelerated radioisotope decay did occur on the earth, then it could be argued every atom in the universe would be similarly affected at the same time. Furthermore, meteorites are regarded as primordial material left over from the formation of the solar system, which is compatible with the Hebrew text of Genesis that suggests God made primordial material on Day One of the Creation Week, from which He made the non-earth portion of the solar system on Day Four. Thus today’s measured radioisotope composition of Allende may reflect a geochemical signature of that primordial material, which included atoms of all elemental isotopes. So if some of the daughter isotopes were already in the Allende meteorite when it was formed, and if the parent isotopes in the meteorite were also subject to subsequent accelerated radioisotope decay at the same time it occurred in earth rocks, then the 4.56718 ± 0.0002 Ga Pb-Pb isochron “age” for the Allende cannot be its true real-time age, which according to the biblical paradigm is only about 6000 real-time years. The results of further studies of more radioisiotope ages data for many more meteorites will confirm or adjust these tentative interim suggestions based on these Allende radioisotope ages data.

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Bibliography of Creationist Astronomy

This is a compilation of articles, papers and letters to the editor on creationist astronomy.

Bibliography of Creationist Astronomy 2013

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