CorrectionsAnswers Research Journal, Volume 1, 2008

Table of Contents

  • p1–6Proceedings of the Microbe Forum, June 2007
    For many years the roles of microbes as part of God’s wonderful design have been neglected. Perhaps it is because many people associate microbes as the cause of death, disease, and suffering.
  • p7–10Microbes and the Days of Creation

    by Alan L. Gillen

    The world of germs and microbes has received much attention in recent years. But where do microbes fit into the creation account? Were they created along with the rest of the plants and animals in the first week of creation, or were they created later, after the Fall? These are some questions that creation microbiologists have been asking in recent years. Ongoing research, based on the creation paradigm, appears to provide some answers to these puzzling questions. The answers to these questions are not explicit in Scripture, so the answers cannot be dogmatic. However, a reasonable extrapolation from biological data and Scripture can be made about the nature of microbes in a fully mature creation. This article attempts to provide reasonable answers to when microbes were created and is meant to stimulate discussion and further research in this area.

    Very little has been written in Bible commentaries or in creation literature on the subject of when microbes were created. Some have postulated that microbes were created on a single day of Creation, such as Day Three—when the plants were made. This is partially due to the “seed-like” characteristics that bacteria and fungi have—therefore classifying microbes as plants. In addition, we observe microbes (such as Escherichia coli) isolated in the lab and we tend to think of microbes as individual entities much like birds or fish or animals and, therefore, created on a single day. However, in nature, the vast majority of microbes live in biological partnerships, not in total isolation. The natural symbiosis of microbes with other creatures is the norm. Therefore, we postulate that microbes were created as “biological systems” with plants, animals, and humans on multiple days, as supporting systems in mature plants, animals, and humans. This idea is further supported by the work of Francis (2003). Francis calls microbial symbiotic systems a biomatrix, or organosubstrate. He proposes that microbes were created as a link between macroorganisms and a chemically rich but inert physical environment, providing a surface (i.e., substrate) upon which multicellular creatures can thrive and persist in intricately designed ecosystems. From the beginning, God made His creation fully mature, and complex forms fully formed. This would ensure continuity and stability for the times to come. Although we cannot be certain as to specifically when the Creator made microbes, it is within His character to make entire interwoven, “packaged” systems to sustain and maintain life.

  • p11–26Catastrophic Granite Formation

    by Andrew A. Snelling

    The timescale for the generation of granitic magmas and their subsequent intrusion, crystallization, and cooling as plutons is no longer incompatible with the biblical time frames of the global, year-long Flood cataclysm and of 6,000–7,000 years for earth history. Though partial melting in the lower crust is the main rate-limiting step, it is now conjectured to only take years to decades, so partial melting to produce a large reservoir of granitic magmas could have occurred in the pre-Flood era as a consequence of accelerated nuclear decay early in the Creation Week. Rapid segregation, ascent, and emplacement now understood to only take days via dikes would have been aided by the tectonic “squeezing” and “pumping” during the catastrophic plate tectonics driving the global Genesis Flood cataclysm. Now that it has also been established that granitic plutons are mostly tabular sheets, crystallization and cooling would be even more easily facilitated by hydrothermal convective circulation with meteoric waters in the host rocks. The growth of large crystals from magmas within hours has now been experimentally determined, while the co-formation in the same biotite flakes of adjacent uranium and polonium radiohalos, the latter from short-lived parent polonium isotopes, requires that crystallization and cooling of the granitic plutons only took about 6–10 days. Thus the sum total of time, from partial melting in the lower crust to crystallization and cooling of granitic plutons emplaced in the upper crust, no longer conflicts with the biblical time frame for earth history, nor is it an impediment to accounting for most of the fossil-bearing geologic record during the global year-long Flood catastrophe.

  • p27–42An Apology and Unification Theory for the Reconciliation of Physical Matter and Metaphysical Cognizance

    by Desmond P. Allen

    Because one is tangible and the other intangible, the physical and metaphysical are generally treated separately. But this dichotomy is illogical; at the very least it is inconsistent with reality, for the two are inseparable. A basic introduction to the principal issues in quantum physics is provided to stress two points: (1) our physical reality consists mostly of empty space, electromagnetic energy, and information; and (2) the metaphysical implications of nonlocality as evidenced by studies in entanglement, quantum teleportation, and zero-point energy. Then the impossibility of three critical events is addressed: the spontaneous ex nihilo appearance of an exploding mass via its own nonexistent energy, the spontaneous generation of organic life from inorganic nonlife, and the spontaneous generation of a complex metaphysical reality from physical matter. This leads to an apology for the necessity of a creator.

    Finally, a theory is set forth that reconciles inorganic, organic, and animated matter with the metaphysical realities of both the creator and the created. By coupling the metaphysical implications of quantum physics with the biblical understanding of God’s attributes, the thesis is set forth that our immediate physical reality—consisting of empty space, electromagnetic energy, and information—is basically a hologram depiction of God’s intent. God spoke and it was so. Since creation, God’s Spirit has continued to energize and interact with the universe in an entangled nature at the quantum level. Similarly, the individual metaphysical reality (the spirit) of each animated being interacts with its individual corporal body via this same entangled nature at the subatomic level.

    Man being created in the image of God, freewill, the existence of evil, and redemption are also addressed. And finally, because man is a special creature created in God’s image, it follows that man, merely by intent, has within him the ability, at least in a limited capacity, to cause change to his environment, this holographic reality; thus biblical healings and miracles occur. This concept could also provide an explanation for certain other human-generated phenomena.

  • p43–52Louis Pasteur’s Views on Creation, Evolution, and the Genesis of Germs

    by Alan L. Gillen and Frank J. Sherwin III

    “There is no remembrance of men of old, and even those who are yet to come will not be remembered by those who follow.” Ecclesiastes 1:11 (NIV)

    In past years revisionist historians have been rewriting the worldview of Christians who have made some of the major discoveries in biology and medicine. It appears that postmodern revisionists are rewriting history to support their agenda of a more “secular” explanation to science. The Judeo-Christian worldview is not politically correct in most universities. This is true in regard to past scientists such as Louis Pasteur who believed in creation. According to reliable, primary sources such as René Vallery-Radot, Pasteur’s son-in-law, Pasteur’s unique view and application of operational science gave him a significant advantage, benefiting mankind in a number of critical areas.

    Shortly after Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859, Pasteur began to challenge the idea of spontaneous generation—the foundation of the evolutionary view on the origin of life. Pasteur’s simple, but elegant swan-necked flask experiments not only put to rest the organic life-from-non-life idea, but also set the foundation for the law of biogenesis: life only comes from life. The genesis of germs in hospital patients were the result of microbes having parents, not a result of spontaneous generation. This revolutionary idea would have application in many areas of medicine. It forms the basis of sterilization, asepsis in surgery, and the germ theory of disease.

    Pasteur had the uncanny ability to combine theoretical, operational, and applied science—the mark of a truly gifted scientist. Pasteur understood the variability of microbes and how he could apply this principle in vaccine preparation. For example, he noticed that Bacillus anthracis cultures sometimes lose their pathogenic ability when heated, and then retain this modified, nonvirulent, or “attenuated” trait through many generations. He applied this concept to vaccinate dozens of sheep that would have otherwise died at a critical time in France. His understanding of this natural variation was also successfully applied in developing vaccines for chicken cholera and rabies.

    Although his scientific pronouncements were sometimes abrasive to his fellow scientists, he remained firm in his convictions, borne from painstaking research. Pasteur had a strong religious and humanitarian spirit. He firmly believed in God, as the Creator of all living things. From his knowledge of the Gospels, he wanted to benefit mankind by having his ideas used to “heal the sick.”

  • p53–64Testing the Hydrothermal Fluid Transport Model for Polonium Radiohalo Formation: The Thunderhead Sandstone, Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee–North Carolina

    by Andrew A. Snelling

    The meta-arkoses of the Thunderhead Sandstone in the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina contain both detrital zircon grains and metamorphic biotite flakes in all zones of regional metamorphism. The original sandstones after deposition would have contained water. Furthermore, the reaction responsible for the mineralogical changes at the staurolite isograd would have produced large volumes of water. Thus it was predicted that during the regional metamorphism these waters as hydrothermal fluids should have transported Po from the zircon grains to the biotite flakes to generate Po radiohalos in the latter. Also, the greater volume of hydrothermal fluids at the staurolite isograd should have generated more Po radiohalos there. Both predictions were verified, with four–five times more Po radiohalos in the meta-arkoses straddling the staurolite isograd. These results also verify the hydrothermal fluid transport model for Po radiohalo formation. It was concluded that the regional metamorphism, the hydrothermal fluid flows, the cooling of the regional metamorphic complex, and the formation of the Po radiohalos all had to have occurred within a few weeks. This is feasible in the context of catastrophic plate tectonics and grossly accelerated 238U decay during the Genesis Flood.

  • p65–75Toward a Practical Theology of Peer Review

    by Roger W. Sanders, Kurt P. Wise, Joseph W. Francis, and Todd Charles Wood

    Despite the centrality of peer review to the development of a scholarly community, very little is known about the biblical basis and Christian conduct of peer review. We find that peer review is rooted in several Christian virtues, such as reflecting Christ, being honest, seeking wisdom, humbly submitting, showing Christian love, correcting error, and being accountable. Given these principles, we recommend that creationists use a double-blind peer review system, wherein the identities of the author and peer reviewers are confidential. Additionally, we recommend that creationist publishers develop a regular public audit of their peer-review process.

  • p77–88Karyotype Variability within the Cattle Monobaramin

    by Dr. Jean K. Lightner

    The Genesis account states that God created all living things according to their kinds. Cattle, bison, and buffalo are identified as being derived from a single created kind (i.e., they belong to a monobaramin). Karyotype variability is examined within this monobaramin. I conclude that chromosomal rearrangements, particularly centric fusions, have played an important role in developing the chromosomal patterns that are seen in these animals today. Furthermore, it appears that these rearrangements are dependent on numerous mechanisms (to repair breaks, deactivate a centromere, and restructure heterochromatin) that allow for such changes while maintaining the viability of the animal. Since different fusions have become fixed in different populations, it is proposed that these changes are likely beneficial. The precision necessary to fuse two chromosomes, inactivate one centromere, and adjust the amount of heterochromatin suggests that the chromosomal translocation mechanisms were designed by God to provide for His creatures in this present fallen world.

  • p89–94Mars, a Testament to Catastrophe

    by Charles Creager Jr.

    Opposite Hellas, the largest impact basin on Mars, are the Tharsis volcanoes, the largest volcanoes in the solar system. Directly opposite the center of Hellas impact basin is the volcano called Alba Patera. Alba Patera is the largest Martian volcano by surface area. Coming off of the Tharsis plateau is Valles Marineris, the largest known valley in the solar system.

    The unlikely geographic relationship between these gigantic features suggests a cause and effect relationship between them. This implies a global Martian catastrophe comparable in scale to the Genesis Flood.

    The twin rovers, Opportunity and Spirit, have provided evidence in support of a Martian geological catastrophe. Data sent from Opportunity (and from orbit) show that it landed in an area that was catastrophically flooded from the south forming a large splat zone in the north.

    Current data provide an excellent starting point for a young Mars catastrophic geologic model allowing the formation of a core young Mars model.

  • p95–98“In-Place” Fossils by Chance

    by John Woodmorappe

    Considering the fact that most fossils are not “in-place”, how often do those that appear to be “in- place” come up that way by chance? Application of the binomial theorem shows that this can often happen. For instance, if an organism has a 50:50 probability of being deposited in life orientation, 4 of 5, or 11 of 15, will end up that way 1% of the time. Since a geologist visits many outcrops, he has a 50% likelihood of encountering one such 1-in-100 assemblage after 70 visits.
  • p99–108Green River Formation Very Likely Did Not Form in a Postdiluvial Lake

    by Michael J. Oard and Peter Klevberg

    The Green River Formation of the Western United States is famous for several unusual mineralogic and geologic features, some of which are favorite arguments used by anticreationists against the biblical timescale. The uniformitarians believe that the couplets in the Green River Formation are varves, but evidence militates against this interpretation. Many creationists are also convinced that some of these features cannot be explained by the global Flood of Genesis but must instead be the result of longer-term processes after the Flood. Evidence from erosion and geomorphology, however, militate against the postdiluvial view and is more favorable of a catastrophe on the scale of the Genesis Flood.

  • p109–116Genetics of Coat Color I

    by Jean K. Lightner

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is located on the surface of melanocytes (pigment cells) and is involved with switching melanin synthesis from the lighter red to yellow pheomelanin to the darker brown to black eumelanin. Most animals are capable of producing both pigments and have various shades of color distributed throughout their hair coats. Mutations in the MC1R can add interesting color patterns ranging from the all black phenotype of Chinese Meishan pigs to the all red color of the Irish Setter. Given the number of alleles within baramins (created kinds), much of the diversity at this locus must have developed since the genetic bottleneck at the Flood where only a single breeding pair was preserved for most baramins. Similarly, humans carry more alleles than can be accounted for by Noah and his family. Since mutations at this locus are not known to directly cause any disease and they add to the beauty and variety we see today, it appears that this locus was designed to vary. Furthermore, since there are non-random patterns that have been observed which cannot be explained by known selection factors, it appears plausible that many of these mutations may actually be directed.

  • p117–122Bacterial Attenuation and its Link to Innate Oncolytic Potential

    by Luke Kim

    Although bacteria have been mainly recognized as disease causing agents since the discovery of their identity, there are abundant scientific evidences that bacterial pathogenicity is not the major biological function of bacteria. Microbiologists have traditionally focused on disease studies rather than on the diverse beneficial functions of bacteria. Recently, cancer/micro-biologists serendipitously discovered an important beneficial function of bacteria as anti-cancer agents. This is consistent with the idea that bacteria were originally created to perform beneficial functions. In order to maximize the medical benefits of bacterial oncolysis, genetic attenuation of bacteria (reduction of pathogenicity) can be used to help reduce the pathogenecity of bacteria while not diminishing oncolytic activity. The oncolytic role of bacteria within the creation model will be examined in this paper.

  • p123–144Radiocarbon Ages for Fossil Ammonites and Wood in Cretaceous Strata near Redding, California

    by Andrew A. Snelling

    Fossil ammonites from lower Cretaceous mudstones in northern California, which are supposedly 112–120 million years old and biostratigraphic index fossils, were sampled along with fossil wood buried with them. Fragments of two fossil ammonite shells and four pieces of fossil wood yielded easily measurable radiocarbon (14C) equivalent to apparent 14C ages of between 36,400±350 and 48,710±930 years for the ammonites, and between 32,780±230 and 42,390±510 years for the wood. Any contamination with modern 14C due to the sample environment and handling was eliminated by the laboratory’s severe pre-treatment procedure. Any alleged contamination due to sample combustion or AMS instrument background was more than compensated for by the laboratory background of 0.077 pMC already having been subtracted from the reported results. The ammonite shells could not have been contaminated in the ground by replacement with modern carbonate 14C either, because they yielded almost identical 14C apparent ages as the wood buried and fossilized with them. It was concluded that the measured 14C is in situ radiocarbon intrinsic to the ammonites and wood when they were buried and fossilized. So once past conditions in the atmosphere and biosphere are taken into account, their true ages are consistent with their burial during the Genesis Flood only about 4,300 years ago, when the ocean waters washed sediments and ammonites onto the continents.

  • p145–168The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer

    by John D. Matthews

    The dominant view of the origin of oil amongst western oil companies until 1969 was that it was due to the decay of living matter. Now other views are making themselves heard. To try and resolve the issue whether oil is biogenic (derived from living matter) or abiogenic (built up from primordial matter and therefore not from living matter) a Hedberg Conference recently took place. The issue was not resolved. This suggests that a third alternative is needed, especially as neither model fits into a young-earth scenario.

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss those naturalistic models, show that there are severe problems with both models, and offer a robust alternative which respects the geochemistry of oil, the known geology of rocks involved in the process, the Creator’s power, and the geological events surrounding the Noachian Flood. I have called it the “theobaric” model, meaning made by God. The oil existed in pristine state before the Flood, and moved during the Flood into the reservoirs where we now find it. This has interesting implications for Christian apologetics and the choice of Flood models.

  • p169–195Hebrew Metaphysic

    by Doug Kennard

    Metaphysical development in Hebrew biblical texts is especially elucidated through a series of word studies with a shifting emphasis that each cross-pollinates the others. Life is “whole being with movement”. Holy is ontologically “separate”. Clean is ontologically “appropriate for cult”. Righteousness is “appropriate in covenant”. Uncleanness and sin remove the appropriateness for cult and covenant, thus removing Israelites and Tabernacle from being holy. Purification sacrifice recovers for holy and clean, and for humans also provides forgiveness.

    Note: To view Hebrew characters, please refer to the pdf version.

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Bibliography of Creationist Astronomy

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