The following are the appendices and references for the paper, Mammalian Ark Kinds:

Appendix 1. Mammalian hybrids—Macropodidae.

Genus Species Common Name
Lagostrophus fasciatus Banded Hair-wallaby
Genus Species Common Name
Dendrolagus bennettianus Bennett’s Tree-kangaroo
Dendrolagus dorianus Doria’s Tree-kangaroo
Dendrolagus goodfellowi Goodfellow’s Tree-kangaroo
Dendrolagus inustus Grizzled Tree-kangaroo
Dendrolagus lumholtzi Lumholtz’s Tree-kangaroo
Dendrolagus matschiei Huon Tree-kangaroo
Dendrolagus mbaiso Dingiso
Dendrolagus pulcherrimus Golden-mantled Tree-kangaroo
Dendrolagus scottae Tenkile
Dendrolagus spadix Lowlands Tree-kangaroo
Dendrolagus stellarum Seri’s Tree-kangaroo
Dendrolagus ursinus Ursine Tree-kangaroo
Dorcopsis atrata Black Dorcopsis
Dorcopsis hageni White-striped Dorcopsis
Dorcopsis luctuosa Gray Dorcopsis
Dorcopsis muelleri Brown Dorcopsis
Dorcopsis macleayi Macleay’s Dorcopsis
Dorcopsis vanheurni Small Dorcopsis
Lagorchestes asomatus Lake Mackay Hare-wallaby
Lagorchestes conspicillatus Spectacled Hare-wallaby
Lagorchestes hirsutus Rufous Hare-wallaby
Lagorchestes leporides Eastern Hare-wallaby
Macropus agilis (3) Agile Wallaby
Macropus antilopinus Antilopine Kangaroo
Macropus bernardus Woodward’s Wallaroo
Macropus dorsalis Black-striped Wallaby
Macropus eugenii Tammar Wallaby
Macropus fuliginosus (1, 2) Western Grey Kangaroo
Macropus giganteus (1, 2) Eastern Grey Kangaroo
Macropus greyi Toolache Wallaby
Macropus irma Western Brush Wallaby
Macropus parma Parma Wallaby
Macropus parryi (1) Pretty-faced Wallaby
Macropus robustus (2) Wallaroo
Macropus rufogriseus (4) Red-necked Wallaby
Macropus rufus (1, 2) Red Kangaroo
Onychogalea fraenata Brindled Nail-tail Wallaby
Onychogalea lunata Crescent Nail-tail Wallaby
Onychogalea unguifera Northern Nail-tail Wallaby
Petrogale assimilis (5) Allied Rock-wallaby
Petrogale brachyotis Short-eared Rock-wallaby
Petrogale burbidgei Monjon
Petrogale coenensis Cape York Rock-wallaby
Petrogale concinna Nabarlek
Petrogale godmani Godman’s Rock-wallaby
Petrogale herberti Herbert’s Rock-wallaby
Petrogale inornata (5) Unadorned Rock-wallaby
Petrogale lateralis Black-flanked Rock-wallaby
Petrogale mereeba (5) Mareeba Rock-wallaby
Petrogale penicillata Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby
Petrogale persephone Proserpine Rock-wallaby
Petrogale purpureicollis Perple-necked Rock-wallaby
Petrogale rothschildi Rothschild’s Rock-wallaby
Petrogale sharmani (5) Mt. Claro Rock-wallaby
Petrogale xanthopus Yellow-footed Rock-wallaby
Setonix brachyurus Quokka
Thylogale billardierii Tasmanian Pademelon
Thylogale browni Brown’s Pademelon
Thylogale brunii Dusky Pademelon
Thylogale calabyi Calaby’s Pademelon
Thylogale lanatus Mountain Pademelon
Thylogale stigmatica (4) Red-legged Pademelon
Thylogale thetis (4) Red-necked Pademelon
Wallabia bicolor (3) Swamp Wallaby

(1) The Eastern Grey Kangaroo has crossed with the Western Grey Kangaroo, the Pretty-faced Wallaby, and the Red Kangaroo (Gray 1972, pp. 167–168).

(2) The Red Kangaroo, in addition to hybridizing the the Eastern (#1) and Western Grey Kangaroos, has hybridized with the Walaroo (Gray 1972, p. 168).

(3) The Agile Wallaby has crossed with the Swamp Wallaby (VanGelder 1977, pp. 5–6). Mentioned in Gary (1972) with both under the genus name Wallabia (pp. 169–170).

(4) The Red-necked Pademelon has hybridized with the Red-legged Pademelon and the Red-necked Wallaby (Bennet’s Wallaby in Gray) (Gray 1972, p. 169).

(5) Crosses have been produced between the Allied Rock-wallaby and the Unadorned, Mareeba, and Mt. Claro Rock-wallabies (Close et al. 1996). Each of these species differ in karyotype.

Appendix 2. Mammalian hybrids—Elephantidae.

Genus Species Common Name
Elephus maximus (1) Asian Elephant
Loxodonta africana (1) African Bush Elephant
Loxodonta cyclotis African Forest Elephant

(1) An Asian elephant gave birth to a male calf, Motty, at Chester Zoo in England in 1978; the sire was an African elephant (

For many years the African Bush and Forest Elephants were considered different subspecies of L. africana.

Appendix 3. Mammalian hybrids—Cercopithecidae.

Genus Species Common Name
Allenopithecus nigroviridis (1) Allen’s Swamp Monkey
Cercocebus 6 species (2, 3) Mangabeys
Cercopithecus 25 species (1, 4, 5) various Monkeys and Guenons
Chlorocebus 6 species various Monkeys and Vervet
Erythrocebus patas (5) Patas Monkey
Lophocebus 3 species various Mangabeys
Macaca 21 species (2, 4) Macaque
Mandrillus 2 species (3, 6) Mandrills
Miopithecus 2 species Talapoin
Papio 5 species (6, 7) Baboon
Theropithecus gelada (7) Gelada
Genus Species Common Name
Colobus 5 species Colobuses
Nasalis larvatus Proboscis Monkey
Piliocolobus 9 species other Colobuses
Presbytis 10 species Surilis and Langurs
Procolobus verus Olive Colobus
Pygathrix 3 species Douc Langurs
Rhinopithecus 4 species Snub-nosed Monkeys
Semnopithecus 7 species Gray Langurs
Simias cancolor Simakobou
Trachypithecus 17 species Lutungs, Leaf-monkeys, and other Langurs

(1) Allenopithecus nigroviridis has crossed with Cercopithecus aethiops producing viable offspring (Van Gelder 1977).

(2) Two species of Cercocebus have each crossed with two species of Macaca (Van Gelder 1977).

(3) There are two reported cases of Cercocebus crossing with Mandrillus, resulting in live birth (Van Gelder 1977).

(4) Several species of Cercopithecus have been crossed succesfully with several species of Macaca (Van Gelder 1977).

(5) A hybrid was produced between one species of Cercopithecus and Erythrocebus patas (Van Gelder 1977).

(6) Several species of Mandrillus have hybridized with various species from Papio (Van Gelder 1977).

(7) Theropithecus gelada has hybridized with Papio (Van Gelder 1977).

Appendix 4. Mammal hybrids—Sciuridae.

Genus Species Common Name
Ratufa 4 species Giant Squirrels
Sciurillus pusillus Neotropical Pygmy Squirrel
Microsciurus 4 species Dwarf Squirrels
Rheithrosciurus macrotis Tufted Ground Squirrel or Groove-toothed Squirrel
Sciurus 28 species Tree Squirrels
Syntheosciurus brochus Bang’s Mountain Squirrel
Tamiasciurus 3 species (2) Red Squirrels or Chickarees
Aeretes melanopterus Northern Chinese Flying Squirrel or Groove-toothed Flying Squirrel
Aeromys 2 species Large Black Flying Squirrels
Belomys pearsonii Hairy-footed Flying Squirrel
Biswamoyopterus biswasi Namdapha Flying Squirrel
Eoglaucomys fimbriatus Kashmir Flying Squirrel
Eupetaurus cinereus Woolly Flying Squirrel
Glaucomys 2 species New World Flying Squirrels
Hylopetes 9 species Arrow-tailed Flying Squirrels
Iomys 2 species Horsfield’s Flying Squirrels
Petaurillus 3 species Pygmy Flying Squirrels
Petaurista 8 species Giant Flying Squirrels
Petinomys 9 species Dwarf Flying Squirrels
Pteromys 2 species Old World Flying Squirrels
Pteromyscus pulverulentus Smoky Flying Squirrel
Trogopterus xanthipes Complex-toothed Flying Squirrels
Callosciurus 15 species Beautiful Squirrels or Tricolored Squirrels
Dremomys 6 species Red-cheeked Squirrels
Exilisciurus 3 species Pygmy Squirrels
Funambulus 5 species Asiatic Striped Palm Squirrels
Glyphotes simus Bornean Pygmy Squirrel or Sculptor Squirrel
Hyosciurus 2 species Sulawesi Long-nosed Squirrels
Lariscus 4 species Malaysian Striped Ground Squirrels
Menetes berdmorei Berdmore’s or Multistriped Palm Squirrel
Nannosciurus melanotis Black-eared Squirrel
Prosciurillus 5 species Sulawesi Dwarf Squirrels
Rhinosciurus laticaudatus Long-nosed Squirrel or Shrew-faced Squirrel
Rubrisciurus rubriventer Sulawesi Giant Squirrel
Sundasciurus 15 species Sunda Tree Squirrels
Tamiops 4 species Asiatic Striped Squirrel
Atlantoxerus getulus Barbary Groud Squirrel
Spermophilopsis leptodactylus Long-clawed Ground Squirrel
Xerus 4 species African Ground Squirrels
Epixerus ebii African Palm Squirrels
Funisciurus 9 species African Striped Squirrels or Rope Squirrels
Heliosciurus 6 species Sun Squirrels
Myosciurus pumilio African Pygmy Squirrel
Paraxerus 11 species African Bush Squirrels
Protoxerus 2 species Oil Palm Squirrels
Ammospermophilus 5 species Antelope Ground Squirrels
Cynomys 5 species Prairie Dogs
Marmota 14 species (3) Marmots
Sciurotamias 2 species Rock Squirrels
Spermophilus 41 species (1) Ground Squirrels or Susliks
Tamias 25 species Chipmunks

(1) There is abundant evidence of interspecific hybridization among members of this genus in contact zones (Cothran and Honeycutt

1984; Ermakov et al. 2002; Goodwin 1998; Hafner 1992; Spiridonova et al. 2006; Tsvirka, Chelomina, and Korablev 2006). Gray (1972) has some listed under the (invalid) genus name Citellus.

(2) There is evidence of hybridization between Tamiasciurus douglasii and T. hudsonicus in a contact zone (Chavez, Saltzberg, and Kenagy 2011).

(3) There is evidence of hybridization between Marmota baibacina and M. sibirica in a contact zone (Brandler, Nikol’sky, and Kolesnikov 2010).

Appendix 5. Mammal hybrids—Geomyidae.

Genus Species Common Name
Cratogeomys 8 species Yellow-faced and Mexican Pocket Gophers
Geomys 9 species (1) Eastern Pocket Gophers
Orthogeomys 11 species Taltuzas
Pappogeomys 2 species Alcorn’s and Buller’s Pocket Gophers
Thomomys 8 species (2) Western Pocket Gophers
Zygogeomys trichopus Michoacan Pocket Gopher

(1) Hybrids have been reported in contact zones between several different species in Geomys (Harrison 1993).

(2) Hybrids have been reported in contact zones between Thomomys townsendii x T. umbrinus (Gray 1972, pp. 63–64).

Appendix 6. Mammal hybrids—Leporidae.

Genus Species Common Name
Brachylagus idahoensis Pygmy Rabbit
Bunolagus monticularis Riverine Rabbit
Caprolagus hispidus Hispid Hare
Lepus 32 species (1, 2) Common Hares and Jackrabbits
Nesolagus 2 species Striped Rabbits
Oryctolagus cuniculus (2) European Rabbit
Pentalagus furnessi Amami Rabbit
Poelagus majorita Bunyoro Rabbit
Pronolagus 3 species Red Rock Hares
Romerolagus diazi Volcano Rabbit
Sylvilagus 17 species Cottontails

(1) Hybrids have been reported between L. europaeus (European Hare) and L. timidus (Mountain Hare) (Gray 1972, pp. 90–91).

(2) Live hybrids are claimed between Lepus species and O. cuniculus (European rabbit), but not well documented. One well documented case of development past the blastocyst stage and implantation has been recorded (Chang, Marston and Hunt 1964; Gray 1972, pp. 91–92).

Appendix 7. Mammal hybrids—Felidae.

Genus Species Common Name
Acinonyx jubatus Cheetah
Caracal caracal Caracal
Catopuma badia Bay Cat
Catopuma temminckii Asian Golden Cat
Felis beiti Chinese Mountain Cat
Felis catus (3) Domestic Cat
Felis chaus (3) Jungle Cat
Felis manul Palla’s Cat
Felis margarita Sand Cat
Felis nigripes Blackfooted Cat
Felis silvestris (3) Wildcat
Leopardus 9 species (4) includes ocelot
Leptailurus serval Serval
Lynx canadensis Canadian Lynx
Lynx lynx Eurasian Lynx
Lynx pardinus Iberian Lynx
Lynx rufus (3) Bobcat
Pardofelis marmorata Marbled Cat
Prionailurus bengalensis (3) Leopard Cat
Prionailurus iriomotensis Iriomote Cat
Prionailurus planiceps Flat-headded Cat
Prionailurus rubiginosus Rusty-Spotted Cat
Prionailurus viverrinus Fishng Cat
Profelis aurata African Golden Cat
Puma concolor (1, 4) Cougar
Puma yagouaroundi Jaguarundi
Genus Species Common Name
Neofelis nebulosa Clouded Leopard
Panthera leo (2) Lion
Panthera onca Jaguar
Panthera pardus (1, 2) Leopard
Panthera tigris (2) Tiger
Uncia uncia Snow Leopard

(1) Reciprocal crossed have occurred between the Cougar and the Leopard (Gray 1972, pp. 37–38).

(2) Lions have crossed with both leopards and tigers (Gray 1972, pp. 39–40).

(3) The domestic cat is reported to have crossed with the Jungle Cat, European Wild Cat, Bobcat, and Leopard Cat (Gray 1972, pp. 35–37.

(4) The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) has crosses with the Cougar (Puma concolor) (Dubost and Royère 1993).

Appendix 8. Mammal hybrids—Canidae.

Genus Species Common Name
Atelocynus microtis Short-eared Dog
Canis adustus Side-striped Jackal
Canis aureus (1) Golden Jackal
Canis latrans (1, 4) Coyote
Canis lupus (1) Wolf
Canis mesomelas Black-backed Jackal
Canis simensis Ethiopian Wolf
Cerdocyon thous Crab-eating Fox
Chrysocyon brachyurus Maned Wolf
Cuon alpinus Dhole
Dusicyon australis Falkland Islands Wolf
Lycalopex culpaeus Culpeo
Lycalopex fulvipes Darwin’s Fox
Lycalopex griseus South American Gray Fox
Lycalopex gymnocercus Pampas Fox
Lycalopex sechurae Sechuran Fox
Lycalopex vetulus Hoary Fox
Lycaon pictus African wild dog
Nyctereutes procyonoides Raccoon dog
Otocyon megalotis Bat-eared Fox
Speothos venaticus Bush Dog
Urocyon cinereoargenteus Gray Fox
Urocyon littoralis Island Fox
Vulpes bengalensis Bengal Fox
Vulpes cana Blanford’s Fox
Vulpes chama Cape Fox
Vulpes corsac Corsac Fox
Vulpes ferrilata Tibetan Sand Fox
Vulpes lagopus (2) Arctic Fox
Vulpes macrotis (3) Kit Fox
Vulpes pallida Pale Fox
Vulpes rueppellii Rüppell’s Fox
Vulpes velox (3) Swift Fox
Vulpes vulpes (2, 4) Red Fox
Vulpes zerda Fennec Fox

(1) Well documented hybrids with domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) (Gray 1972, pp. 46–47).

(2) The Arctic Fox has hybridized with both the Red Fox, and the color variant called the Silver Fox (formerly Vulpes fulva) (Gray 1972, pp. 44–45).

(3) Hybridization inferred from intermediate skull morphology found in region where species overlap (Rohwer and Kilgore 1973).

(4) A zoo hybrid documented in International Zoo Yearbook 15, Duplaix-Hal (1975, p. 372). Further documentation in VanGelder (1977, p. 10).

Appendix 9. Mammal hybrids—Ursidae.

Genus Species Common Name
Ailuropoda melanoleuca Giant Panda
Helarctos malayanus (1) Sun Bear
Melurus ursinus (1) Sloth Bear
Tremarctos ornatus (3) Spectacled Bear
Ursus americanus (2) American Black Bear
Ursus arctos (2) Brown Bear
Ursus maritimus (2) Polar Bear
Ursus thibetanus (1, 2, 3) Asian Black Bear

(1) The Sun Bear has hybridized with both the Sloth Bear and the Asian Black Bear (Hennigan 2009).

(2) The Brown Bear has hybridized with the American Black Bear, Polar Bear, and Asian Black Bear (Hennigan 2009).

(3) The Asian Black Bear has hybridized with the Spectacled Bear (Hennigan 2009).

Appendix 10. Mammal hybrids—Equidae.

Genus Species Common Name
Equus asinus (1) Ass
Equus burchellii (1) Burchell’s Zebra
Equus caballus (1) Horse
Equus grevyi (1) Grévy’s Zebra
Equus hemionus (1) Onager
Equus kiang (1) Kiang
Equus quagga (1?, 2) Quagga
Equus zebra (1, 2) Mountain Zebra

(1) Crosses have been reported between the Ass and all other equine species. The cross between the Ass and the Quagga (now extinct) has been questioned (Gray 1972, pp. 94–101).

(2) The Quagga has been involved other crosses that are not questionable accorording to Gray, including with the Mountain Zebra (Gray 1972, p. 112).

Appendix 11. Mammal hybrids—Tapiridae.

Genus Species Common Name
Tapirus bairdii (1) Baird’s Tapir
Tapirus indicus Malayan Tapir
Tapirus pinchaque Mountain Tapir
Tapirus terrestris (1) South American Tapir

(1) Crosses have occurred between the Baird’s and South American Tapirs at the San Francisco Zoo (Anonymous n.d.).

Appendix 12. Mammal hybrids—Rhinocerotidae.

Genus Species Common Name
Ceratotherium simum (1) White Rhinoceros
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Sumatran Rhinoceros
Diceros bicornis (1) Black Rhinoceros
Rhinoceros sondaicus Javan Rhinoceros
Rhinoceros unicornis Indian Rhinoceros

(1) A hybrid between a white and a black rhinoceros has been confirmed (Robinson et al 2005).


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